Agra is one of the important cities of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated on the banks of the River Yamuna. It houses the wonder of the world, Taj Mahal and hence this city is famous all over the world. The history of Agra starts with the period of Mahabharata and there was a mention about this city in that great epic.
The name Agra is said to be derived from the word Agrevana. Agrevana means the border of the forest. It should be bordering a great forest during those times. The city was founded by Raja Badal Singh in 1475 AD. He built a fort known as Badalgarh. Shahi King Jayapala ruled over from the Agra fort and he was attacked by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni and that incident was mentioned in the writing of the 11th century Persian poet, Masud Sad Salman.
Agra became the capital city during the rule of Sikandar Lodi in 1506. When he passed away in 1517, his son Ibrahim Lodi came to power. He ruled over the place for nine years until he was defeated by the Mughal King Babar in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. During the rule of Delhi Sultanate, Agra was a major tourist destination. It had many notable buildings built by the Mughal Kings, Akbar, Shah Jahan and Jahangir. All these three kings had a taste for establishing architectures and they built Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpur Sikhri which are UNESCO World Heritage sites at present.
The rich history of Agra is reflected through the number of historical monuments found in the city. Though the history started from the time of Mahirshi Angira, it reached its peak during the Mughal time. Samrat Hem Chander Vikramaditya was the Chief of the army of Adil Shah of Suri Dynasty of Afghan. He invaded Agra in 1556 and Tardi Beg Khan, the commander of Mughals of Delhi retreated without a fight as he was afraid of Hemu. Hemu conquered Delhi on 7th October 1556 and established the Vikramaditya Dynasty in North India.
Mughal period was called the golden period of the history of Agra. Akbar named it Akbarabad and it served as the capital of the Mughal Empire during the periods of the kings Akbar, quotemelody Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Akbar founded the new religion Din-I-Ilahi in Agra. However during the period of Shah Jahan in 1649, the capital was shifted back to Delhi. When his son Aurangazeb became the king, he imprisoned Shah Jahan in Agra and shifted his capital to Delhi.